The Minor Rules (26 of them)

Now that we have covered the Major Rules and you have learned many thousands of words in Spanish, we will celebrate the occasion by looking at the Minor Rules (and learning a few more thousand words). These Rules are "Minor" because either:
(a) There are fewer words in English to which they apply than the Major Rules, or
(b) There are more exceptions than there are in the Major Rules, or
(c) Both of the above.
The object here is to further illustrate the intriguing similarity between English and Spanish. You can memorize these Minor Rules if you are so inclined. After all, each time you memorize a Rule, you increase your vocabulary by a phenomenal multiple (Spanish: múltiple fenomenal) and that is what this website is about! However, if you aren't quite that zealous, you can simply refer to the Cheat Sheet at the end of the Appendix.
For the sake of convenience and easy reference, the Minor Rules appear in alphabetical order, and not in the order of their importance.
Keep in mind that these Rules, in the great majority of the cases, apply to words in English having two or more syllables!

So, hold on... here we go

The Minor Rules


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...AR ...AR
Angular Angular
Annular Anular only 1 N
Articular Articular
Auricular Auricular
Binocular Binocular
Circular Circular
Collar Collar quirk #3
Insular Insular
Linear Linear
Modular Modular
Molar Molar
Muscular Muscular
Ocular Ocular
Perpendicular Perpendicular
Pillar Pilar only 1 L
Popular Popular
Sonar Sonar
Triangular Triangular
Vascular Vascular


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
Accelarator Acelarador only 1 C
Accumulator Acumulador ony 1 C
Attenuator Atenuador
Aviator Aviador
Calibrator Calibrador
Corrugator Corrugador
Creator Creador
Dictator Dictador
Elevator Elevador
Equator Ecuador C for Q
Fabricator Fabricador
Gladiator Gladiador
Initiator Iniciador C for T
Lubricator Lubricador
Mediator Mediador
Narrator Narrador
Navigator Navegador E for I
Operator Operador
Orator Orador
Originator Originador
Oxygenator Oxigenador
Radiator Radiador
Refrigerator Refrigerador
Senator Senador
Simulator Simulador


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...CLE ...CULO *see accents
Article Artículo
Monocle Monóculo
Oracle Oráculo
Spectacle Espectáculo quirk #6
Tentacle Tentáculo
Testicle Testículo
Miracle Milagro


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...COPY ...COPIA * see accents
Arthroscopy Artroscopía no H
Copy Copia
Endoscopy Endoscopía
Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopía
Microscopy Microscopía
Spectroscopy Espectroscopía quirk #6


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
Actor Actor
Collector Colector only 1 L
Conductor Conductor
Connector Conector only 1 N
Contractor Contractor also Contratista
Corrector Corrector
Detector Detector
Director Director
Doctor Doctor
Factor Factor
Injector Inyector
Inspector Inspector
Instructor Instructor
Protector Protector
Reactor Reactor
Rector Rector
Reflector Reflector
Refractor Refractor
Retractor Retractor
Sector Sector
Tractor Tractor
Vector Vector


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
Dependence Dependencia
Essence Esencia only 1 S
Evidence Evidencia
Fluorescence Fluorescencia
Independence Independencia
Jurisprudence Jurisprudencia
Luminiscence Luminiscencia
Preference Preferencia
Prudence Prudencia
Reference Referencia
Sequence Secuencia C for Q


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...ENE ...ENO
Acetylene Acetileno I for Y
Ethylene Etileno no H, I for Y
Methylene Metileno no H, I for Y
Poliethylene Polietileno no H, I for Y
Serene Sereno
Toluene Tolueno


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...GRAPH ...GRAFO * see accents
Electrocardiograph Electrocardiógrafo
Electroencephalograph Electroencefalógrafo quirk #5
Encephalograph Encefalógrafo quirk #5
Metalograph Metalógrafo
Phonograph Fonógrafo quirk #5
Polygraph Polígrafo I for Y
Seriograph Seriógrafo


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...GRAPHY ...GRAFÍA * see accents
Angiography Angiografía
Calligraphy Caligrafía only 1 L
Geography Geografía
Micrography Micrografía
Orthography Ortografía no H
Photography Fotografía quirk #5
Topography Topografía
Xerography Xerografía


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...ICAL ...ICO * see accents
Bacteriological Bacteriológico
Economical Económico
Ethical Ético
Logical Lógico
Magical Mágico
Medical Médico
Methodical Metódico no H
Radical Radical see Al Rule


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
Amplify Amplificar
Clarify Clarificar
Classify Clasificar only 1 S
Edify Edificar
Gratify Gratificar
Justify Justificar
Mollify Molificar only 1 L
Nullify Nulificar
Pacify Pacificar
Ratify Ratificar
Solidify Solidificar
Tipify Tipificar
Unify Unificar
Verify Verificar


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...INE ...INA **add an "R" for verbs
Decline Declinar [verb]
Gasoline Gasolina
Recline Reclinar [verb]
Refine Refinar [verb]
Tetracycline Tetraciclina I for Y


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...IST ...ISTA
Antagonist Antagonista
Assist Asista only 1 S
Chorist Corista no H
Columnist Columnista
Communist Comunista only 1 M
Congregationalist Congregacionalista C for T
Dentist Dentista
Desist Desista
Florist Florista
List Lista
Medalist Medallista double L
Nationalist Nacionalista C for T
Occulist Oculista only 1 C
Organist Organista
Populist Populista
Pugilist Pugilista
Rentist Rentista
Resist Resista
Socialist Socialista
Specialist Especialista quirk #6
Subsist Subsist
Twist Torcer [verb]
List [to lean] Reclinar [verb]
Consist Consistir
Mist Neblina
Druggist Farmacólogo


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...IUM ...IO
Actinium Actinio
Aluminium Aluminio
Gallium Galio only 1 L
Medium Medio
Palladium Paladio only 1 L
Podium Podio
Premium Premio
Rhodium Rodio no H
Selenium Selenio
Sodium Sodio
Stadium Estadio quirk #6
Xirconium Xirconio
Chromium Cromo
Chranium Cráneo


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...LOGY ...LOGIA *see accents
Analogy Analogía
Anthropology Antropología no H
Astrology Astrología
Biology Biología
Cancerology Cancerología
Ecology Ecología
Entomology Entomología
Geology Geología
Methodology Metodología no H
Morphology Morfología quirk #5
Ophthalmology Oftalmología quirk #5
Paleontology Paleontología
Physiology Fisiología quirk #5, I for Y
Trilogy Trilogía
Virology Virología
Vulcanology Vulcanología
Zoology Zoología
Apology Disculpa
Eulogy Elogio


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...METER ...METRO *see accents
Barometer Barómetro
Calorimeter Calorímetro
Kilometer Kilómetro
Meter Metro
Odometer Odómetro
Photometer Fotómetro quirk #5
Spectrophotometer Espectrofotómetro quirks #6 & #5
Sphygmomanometer Esfigmomanómetro quirks #6 & #5
Thermometer Termómetro no H


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...METRY ...METRÍA *see accents
Biometry Biometría
Geometry Geometría
Ophthometry Optometría quirk #5
Orthometria Ortometría quirk #5
Polimetry Polimetría


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...OMY ...OMÍA *see accents
Agronomy Agronomía
Anatomy Anatomía
Appendectomy Apendectomía only 1 P
Autonomy Autonomía
Colostomy Colostomía
Hysterectomy Histerectomía I for Y
Mastectomy Mastectomía
Physionomy Fisionomía quirk #5


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...OR ...OR ***2 or more syllables only
Anterior Anterior
Candor Candor
Color Color
Editor Editor
Exterior Exterior
Favor Favor
Furor Furor
Honor Honor
Horror Horror
Humor Humor
Inferior Inferior
Inventor Inventor
Labor [noun] Labor
Monitor Monitor
Motor Motor
Pastor Pastor
Rotor Rotor
Sensor Sensor
Servomotor Servomotor
Stupor Estupor quirk #6
Successor Sucesor only 1 C, only 1 S
Superior Superior
Terror Terror
Transistor Transistor
Tumor Tumor
Valor Valor
Vapor Vapor also means Steam
Vigor Vigor
Visor Visor
Sculptor Escultor
Grantor Subventor


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
Halitosis Halitosis quirk #1
Metamorphosis Metamorfosis
Mitosis Mitosis
Neurosis Neurosis
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis
Thrombosis Trombosis no H


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
Bioplasm Bioplasma
Cataplasm Cataplasma
Ectoplasm Ectoplasma
Protoplasm Protoplasma
For ...SM endings other than ...PLASM, add an "O" for Spanish translation: [see ISM Rule]
Orgasm Orgasmo
Spasm Spasmo


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
Cardioscope Cardioscopio
Endoscope Endoscopio
Gastroscope Gastroscopio
Microscope Microscopio
Ophthalmoscope Oftalmoscopio quirk #5 & #11
Otoscope Otoscopio
Telescope Telescopio


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...STY ...STÍA *see accents
Dinasty Dinastía
Modesty Modestia
Travesty Travestía


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...UME ...UMIR
Assume Asumir only 1 S
Consume Consumir
Presume Presumir
Resume Resumir


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...URE ...URA
Adventure Aventura no D
Aperture Apertura
Architecture Arquitectura QU for CH
Denture Dentadura different spelling
Censure Censura
Conjecture Conjetura no C
Cure Cura
Fracture Fractura
Future Futura or Futuro
Lecture Lectura
Manufacture Manufactura
Overture Obertura B for V
Pasture Pastura
Pure Pura
Rupture Ruptura
Stature Estatura quirk #6
Suture Sutura
Torture Tortura
Venture Ventura
Lure (for fishing) Curricán
Lure (verb) Atraer *to attract
Manure Estiércol
Nature Naturaleza
Secure (verb) Asegurar
Sure Seguro
Vulture Pájaro de Rapiña (WOW!) *a buzzard (zopilote) is a vulture


English Spanish Helpful Reminders
...UTE ...UTO
Astute Astuto
Convolute Convoluto
Dilute [adj.] Diluto also Diluído
Minute Minuto
Prostitute Prostituto [masc.] Prostituta [fem.]
Resolute Resoluto
Statute Statuto
Dilute [verb] Diluir
Salute [verb] Saludar
Pollute [verb] Poluir
Refute [verb] Refutar

And there are still others, but by now you have probably reached the point of total saturation! (sp.saturación total).